Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Salivary IgA is Not a Reliable Indicator of Upper Respiratory Infection in Collegiate Female Soccer Athletes

Salivary IgA is Not a Reliable Indicator of Upper Respiratory Infection in Collegiate Female Soccer Athletes

Vardiman, JP, Riggs, CE, Galloway, DL, Waxman, MB, Touchberry, CD, and Gallagher, PM. Salivary IgA is not a reliable indicator of upper respiratory infection in collegiate female soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(7): 1937-1942, 2011—

It has been shown that mucosal immunity measures such as salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) can be affected by sport activities and has resulted in an increased susceptibility to infection. However, there is limited research that has evaluated the change in s-IgA throughout a full sport training season. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the change in s-IgA levels and incidence of upper respiratory infection in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level female soccer athletes compared to age matched controls over an entire sport training season.

Saliva samples were collected from 12 randomly selected female collegiate soccer athletes and 8 age-matched controls. Samples were collected bimonthly from the athletes' pre-and post-sport training sessions and pre- and post-90-minute sedentary period for the controls.

Analysis showed there was a significant (p < 0.05) group × time interaction in total protein (TP) for collections 1 and 4 and a significant (p < 0.05) group × time interaction in s-IgA/TP for collections 2 and 3. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between athletes and controls for s-IgA or total symptom days (TSDs). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between absolute s-IgA and TSDs or s-IgA/TP and TSDs throughout the sport training season. The large range of measurable levels for s-IgA at the different time points for athletes and controls and the lack of relationship between s-IgA levels and TSDs indicate that s-IgA is not an appropriate measure to determine an athlete's susceptibility to during a training season.

Funny how we can have two opposite conclusions from two different studies published in the same issue of a publication. This is an example of why I read the studies myself and make my own decisions on it validity and use.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Athletes

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
July 2011 - Volume 25 - Issue 7 - pp 1932-1936
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbc0
Original Research

Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Futsal Players

Moreira, Alexandre1; Arsati, Franco2; de Oliveira Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco2; de Freitas, Camila Gobo1; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti3

Collapse Box


Moreira, A, Arsati, F, de Oliveira Lima-Arsati, YB, de Freitas, CG, and de Araújo, VC. Salivary immunoglobulin a responses in professional top-level futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 25(7): 1932-1936, 2011—

The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in 10 professional top-level Brazilian futsal players after 2 highly competitive games separated by 7 days. Unstimulated saliva was collected over a 5-minute period at PRE- and POST-match. The SIgA was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed as the absolute concentration (SIgAabs) and secretion rate of IgA (SIgArate). Rate of perceived exertion and heart rate were used to monitor the exercise intensity. A 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed nonsignificant differences between matches to SIgAabs, SIgArate, and saliva flow rate (p > 0.05). However, significant time differences were observed for all these parameters.

In summary, we showed that a competitive training match induced a decrease in SIgA levels in top-level futsal players, which suggests an increment of the vulnerability to infections meditated by the training stimulus. This decrease suggests that the athletes were at an increased risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection, and therefore, it could be necessary to take protective actions to minimize contact with cold viruses or even reduce the training load for athletes.

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Chiropractic Manipulative therapy for Shoulder Pain and Disorders a Systematic Review!

This is a nice systematic review of using adjustments for various shoulder conditions. I have found them to be invaluable in all my shoulder protocols, being a chiropractor I guess that's to be expected.

Manipulative Therapy for Shoulder Pain and Disorders: Expansion of a Systematic Review

James W. Brantingham, DC, PhDaCorresponding Author Informationemail address, Tammy Kay Cassa, DCb, Debra Bonnefin, DC, MAppScc, Muffit Jensen, DCd, Gary Globe, DC, MBA, PhDe, Marian Hicks, MSLSf, Charmaine Korporaal, MTech Chiropracticg

Received 17 December 2010; received in revised form 17 February 2011; accepted 21 February 2011.



The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on manual and manipulative therapy (MMT) for common shoulder pain and disorders.


A search of the literature was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; and Index to Chiropractic Literature dating from January 1983 to July 7, 2010. Search limits included the English language and human studies along with MeSH terms such as manipulation, chiropractic, osteopathic, orthopedic, musculoskeletal, physical therapies, shoulder, etc. Inclusion criteria required a shoulder peripheral diagnosis and MMT with/without multimodal therapy. Exclusion criteria included pain referred from spinal sites without a peripheral shoulder diagnosis. Articles were assessed primarily using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale in conjunction with modified guidelines and systems. After synthesis and considered judgment scoring were complete, with subsequent participant review and agreement, evidence grades of A, B, C, and I were applied.


A total of 211 citations were retrieved, and 35 articles were deemed useful. There is fair evidence (B) for the treatment of a variety of common rotator cuff disorders, shoulder disorders, adhesive capsulitis, and soft tissue disorders using MMT to the shoulder, shoulder girdle, and/or the full kinetic chain (FKC) combined with or without exercise and/or multimodal therapy. There is limited (C) and insufficient (I) evidence for MMT treatment of minor neurogenic shoulder pain and shoulder osteoarthritis, respectively.


This study found a level of B or fair evidence for MMT of the shoulder, shoulder girdle, and/or the FKC combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for rotator cuff injuries/disorders, disease, or dysfunction. There is a fair or B level of evidence for MMT of the shoulder/shoulder girdle and FKC combined with a multimodal treatment approach for shoulder complaints, dysfunction, disorders, and/or pain.

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Whole-body Vibration No effect on jump performance

People love to only talk about the positive studies about never training and treatment concepts but I wanted to post a negative study on whole-body vibration because well.....I never see anything negative on the web and there still is some debate as to its effectiveness. I have still have not made up my mind on this topic.

Acute whole-body vibration does not affect static jump performance
European Journal of Sport Science
Volume 11, Issue 1, 2011, Pages 19 - 25
Authors: Ashley Kavanaugha; Michael W. Ramseya; William A. Sandsb; G. Gregory Haffc; Michael H. Stonea
DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2010.481333


Currently, whole-body vibration is being used to promote enhanced performance. Many coaches and athletes believe that it can acutely enhance explosive performance and power output. However, the scientific literature is unclear as to whether this enhancement occurs. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration on static jump performance, including jump height, peak force, rate of force development, and peak power. Fourteen recreationally active individuals (5 females, 9 males) participated in three separate randomized treatment sessions. Treatment 1 consisted of no vibration while treatment 2 and treatment 3 incorporated whole-body vibration. The whole-body vibration protocol consisted of three 30-s bouts of vibration performed at 30 Hz and low amplitude (~3 mm) with a 30-s rest between bouts. Treatment 1 was identical in duration to both treatments 2 and 3, but did not contain any vibration. Five minutes after each treatment, the participants performed the static jump protocols. Two (data averaged) non-weighted static jumps and two 20 kg weighted jumps were performed. Treatments 1 vs. 2, 1 vs. 3, and 2 vs. 3 were calculated for each variable at both 0 kg and 20 kg. Jump height, peak force, rate of force development, and peak power were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The intra-class correlations comparing the two trials of each jump for each of the three treatments were ≥0.92. Compared with the no-vibration condition, jump height showed a non-significant increase as a result of whole-body vibration for both unweighted and weighted jumps; peak force, rate of force development, and peak power were not statistically different. The results indicate that whole-body vibration has no effect on jump height, peak force, rate of force development or peak power during static jumping.
Keywords: Vibration; jumping; peak power; peak force; rate of force development
Affiliations: a Department of Physical Education and Exercise Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
b Performance Services, US Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, Colorado
c Department of Human Performance and Applied Exercise Science, West Virginia School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

Monday, June 20, 2011

ACL Reconstruction and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

The Effectiveness of Supplementing
a Standard Rehabilitation Program With
Superimposed Neuromuscular Electrical
Stimulation After Anterior Cruciate
Ligament Reconstruction
A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

Sven Feil,*

MA, John Newell,

PhD, Conor Minogue,

M.Eng.Sc, and Hans H. Paessler,y MD

Investigation performed at Center for Knee and Foot Surgery Sports Traumatology, ATOS Clinic
Centre, Heidelberg, Germany

Background: Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a key determinant affecting patient return to usual
activity levels. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is a treatment that can counteract strength loss and serve as an adjunct to
conventional therapy.

Purpose: To compare the effect of adding traditional neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Polystim) or a novel garmentintegrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Kneehab) to a standard postoperative rehabilitation program (control).
Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.
Methods: Ninety-six patients, of a total enrolled cohort of 131 patients randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups, completed
a standard rehabilitation program. In addition, the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation groups underwent 20-minute sessions
of neuromuscular electrical stimulation 3 times a day, 5 days a week, for 12 weeks, in which stimulation was superimposed on
isometric volitional contractions. Outcome measures including isokinetic strength of the knee extensors of the injured and uninjured leg at 90 and 180 deg/s, along with functional tests of proprioception, were assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks,
and 6 months postoperatively.
Results: The Kneehab group achieved significantly better results at each time point compared with the Polystim and control groups
(P \ .001). Extensor strength of the Kneehab group at speeds of 90 and 180 deg/s increased by 30.2% and 27.8%, respectively,
between the preoperative measurements and the 6-month follow-up point in the injured leg. The corresponding changes for Polystim
were 5.1% and 5%, whereas for the control group they were 6.6% and 6.7%, respectively. The mean single-legged hop test hop score
of the Kneehab group improved by 50% between the 6-week and 6-month follow-up, whereas the corresponding changes for the
Polystim and control groups were 26.3% and 26.2%, respectively. Although there was no significant difference between the groups
with respect to the Tegner score and the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 knee examination score, the Kneehab
group showed a significant difference in mean improvement for the baseline corrected Lysholm score compared with the control group
(P = .01; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.59) and with the Polystim group (P \ .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.09) with no significant difference evident between Polystim and control groups (P = .97; 95% confidence interval, 24.23 to 3.51).
Conclusion: Intensive garment-integrated stimulation combined with standard rehabilitation is effective at accelerating recovery
after knee surgery.

Keywords: knee pathology; anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); strength gains; functional recovery; neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)

Publish Post

Friday, June 17, 2011

Active recovery effects on local oxygenation level during intensive cycling bouts

Active recovery effects on local oxygenation level during intensive cycling bouts
Journal of Sports Sciences
Volume 29, Issue 9, First published 2011, Pages 919 - 926
Authors: Keisuke Koizumia; Yukio Fujitaa; Shigeji Muramatsub; Motomu Manabec; Motoki Itob; Jun Nomurad
DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2011.572990


We hypothesised that the oxygen supply to the fatigued muscles is improved after the recovery with exercise caused by aerobic metabolism in the slow twitch fibres during the recovery period. Ten males performed a 30 s maximum cycling (1st Exercise), followed by a 20 min rest interval (Interval Rest) in which participants were either sitting (No Exercise) or low intensive cycling (Active). Then they again underwent a 30 s bout of maximum cycling (2nd Exercise). The total work of the 2nd Exercise was higher in Active compared to No Exercise (297 ± 14 vs 276 ± 23 J · kg-1, P < 0.01). After Interval Rest, the muscle oxygenation level (P < 0.05) and blood lactate concentration (P < 0.05) were lower in Active compared to No Exercise. In Active, the total work was higher in the 2nd Exercise than the 1st Exercise (297 ± 14 vs 277 ± 23 J · kg-1, P < 0.01), and muscle oxygenation levels during the 2nd Exercise were also higher at 10 (P < 0.05) and 15 (P < 0.01) s after the beginning of the exercise. It was suggested that active recovery exercise would manage to increase the muscle oxygenation level, and improve the performance during the 2nd Exercise accompanied with blood lactate control.

Monday, June 13, 2011

High-altitude training improves Lung capacity in 3 weeks

Background: high-altitude adaptation leads to progressive increase in arterial PaO2. In addition to increased ventilation, better arterial oxygenation may reflect improvements in lung gas exchange. Previous investigations reveal alterations at the alveolar-capillary barrier indicative of decreased resistance to gas exchange with prolonged hypoxia adaptation, but how quickly this occurs is unknown. Carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity and its major determinants, hemoglobin, alveolar volume, pulmonary capillary blood volume, and alveolar-capillary membrane diffusion, have never been examined with early high-altitude adaptation.

Methods and Results: lung diffusion was measured in 33 healthy lowlanders at sea level (Milan, Italy) and at Mount Everest South Base Camp (5,400 m) after a 9-day trek and 2-wk residence at 5,400 m. Measurements were adjusted for hemoglobin and inspired oxygen. Subjects with mountain sickness were excluded. After 2 wk at 5,400 m, hemoglobin oxygen saturation increased from 77.2 ± 6.0 to 85.3 ± 3.6%. Compared with sea level, there were increases in hemoglobin, lung diffusing capacity, membrane diffusion, and alveolar volume from 14.2 ± 1.2 to 17.2 ± 1.8 g/dl (P < 0.01), from 23.6 ± 4.4 to 25.1 ± 5.3 ml·min–1·mmHg–1 (P < 0.0303), 63 ± 34 to 102 ± 65 ml·min–1·mmHg–1(P < 0.01), and 5.6 ± 1.0 to 6.3 ± 1.1 liters (P < 0.01), respectively. Pulmonary capillary blood volume was unchanged. Membrane diffusion normalized for alveolar volume was 10.9 ± 5.2 at sea level rising to 16.0 ± 9.2 ml·min–1·mmHg–1·l–1 (P < 0.01) at 5,400 m.

Conclusions: at high altitude, lung diffusing capacity improves with acclimatization due to increases of hemoglobin, alveolar volume, and membrane diffusion. Reduction in alveolar-capillary barrier resistance is possibly mediated by an increase of sympathetic tone and can develop in 3 wk.

Friday, June 10, 2011

Chocolate Milk and Recovery the studies keep coming !

Chocolate Milk and Recovery is nothing new I have seen studies that either directly relate to its use or are tangentially related via the concept of protein and Carbohydrates intake post work out. Now I love Chocolate in all its glorious forms but I have to admit that at first I was a skeptic when I read the first studies. Now I have to admit that I think it is a cheap alternative for lots of athelets especially kids and ameuters athletes. I continue to recommend very specific protocols for recovery depending on the sport and patient when it comes to nutrition and have incoperated the use of chocolate milk in those planes at the highest levels. Take a look at some of the following abstracts as well as the new study published this June, 2011.

June 2011

Consumption of low-fat chocolate milk is beneficial to muscle recovery and exercise performance, claims two recent studies.

Chocolate milk drinkers had greater improvements in aerobic fitness compared to those drinking a carbohydrate beverage or water, according to recent findings from University of Texas Research.

Last week, the university scientists presented the findings from their latest study (1) at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and 2nd World Congress on Exercise is Medicine.

“Often referred to as ‘nature’s sports drink,’ milk can be an effective way to help the body refuel, rehydrate and recover after a workout as every serving contains nutrients that promote effective recovery after vigorous exercise,” said Gregory Miller, president of the Dairy Research Institute.

Miller is also executive vice president of the National Dairy Council, which co-sponsored the research with the Milk Processor Education Program.

Nutrients in chocolate milk include carbohydrates to help refuel muscles; protein to stimulate repair and growth; and fluid and electrolytes to help replenish what is lost in sweat and to rehydrate the body, according to Miller.


The study involved 32 healthy, untrained participants following a 4½ week aerobic training program consisting of one hour of moderately intense cycling, five days each week.

Immediately and one hour following exercise, the cyclists consumed low-fat chocolate milk, a calorie and fat-matched carbohydrate beverage, or water.

Increased lean muscle and decreased body fat of the men and women was measured to assess the drink’s effect on body composition.

Other recent findings

The study’s findings follow the publication of a larger body of research on chocolate milk in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research last month.

The research (2) studied ten endurance trained cyclists and triathletes who cycled for 90 minutes at moderate exercise intensity prior to performing ten minutes of high-intensity intervals.

Immediately following exercise and again, two hours following exercise, participants consumed a recovery drink of low-fat chocolate milk, a calorie and fat-matched carbohydrate beverage or a non-caloric flavoured water.

The results showed that chocolate milk improved cycling performance more than the other drinks, cutting at least six minutes on average off the cyclist’s ride time.

According to the author, chocolate milk and the carbohydrate drink were more effective than water in restoring carbohydrate fuel in the muscle. There was no difference between groups in markers of muscle breakdown.

Chocolate milk was also found to increase signals for muscle protein synthesis, which leads to the repair and rebuilding of muscle proteins, more than the other drinks.

1. Presented: American College of Sports Medicine 58th Annual Meeting and 2nd World Congress on Exercise is Medicine, June 2, 2011. Aerobic exercise training adaptations are increased by post-exercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation Authors: Ferguson-Stegall, et al.

2. Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Vol. 25, Issue 5, Pages 1210-1224, 2011 Post-exercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves subsequent exercise performance and intracellular signaling for protein synthesis Authors: Ferguson-Stegall, et al


Effects of Chocolate Milk Supplementation on Recovery from Cycling Exercise and Subsequent Time Trial Performance

Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, University of Texas at Austin
Erin McCleave, UT Austin
Phillip G. Doerner III, UT Austin
Zhenping Ding, UT Austin
Benjamin Dessard, UT Austin
Lynne Kammer, UT Austin
Bei Wang, UT Austin
Yang Liu, UT Austin
John L. Ivy, UT Austin


PURPOSE: Supplementing with carbohydrate plus protein following strenuous endurance exercise has been found to improve both recovery and subsequent aerobic endurance performance beyond that of a carbohydrate supplement alone. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of chocolate milk (CM), an isocaloric carbohydrate only supplement (CHO), and placebo (PLA) on markers of endurance exercise recovery and subsequent time trial performance in trained cyclists.

METHODS: Ten trained male and female cyclists (5 males, 5 females) performed 3 trials in which they first cycled for 1.5 h at 70% of VO2max, followed by 10 min of intervals that alternated 45% and 90% VO2max. They then recovered in the laboratory for 4 h, and performed a 40 km time trial (TT). The supplements were provided immediately after the first bout and 2 h into the recovery period. Treatments were administered using a double-blind randomized design.

RESULTS: TT time was significantly shorter in CM than CHO and PLA (79.43±2.11 vs. 85.74±3.44 and 86.92±3.28 min, respectively, p=<.05). Significant treatment differences were found for plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Plasma insulin levels were significantly lower in CM than CHO at recovery time points R45 (47.30±10.54 vs. 58.71±6.01 &#;U/ml, p<.05), R120 (14.32±1.34 vs. 22.53±3.37 &#;U/ml, p<.05) and REnd (15.57±1.53 vs. 34.35±4.55 &#;U/ml, p<.05). Plasma glucose was significantly lower in CM than CHO at recovery time points R45 (76.61±3.08 vs. 101.65±3.47 mg/dL, p<.05) and R120 (74.72±2.22 vs. 81.46±4.87 mg/dL, p<.05). While FFA and glycerol were both higher in PLA than in CM and CHO overall (p<.05 for both), FFA and glycerol were higher in CM than in CHO (p<.05 for both) during recovery and at TTEnd. Blood lactate was significantly higher at R45 and TTEnd in both CM and CHO than in PLA, but no differences were found between CM and CHO. No significant treatment differences were found for myoglobin, CPK, cortisol, and 5 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-&#;, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-1Ra).

CONCLUSIONS: Chocolate milk provided during recovery can improve subsequent time trial performance in trained cyclists more effectively than an isocaloric CHO supplement. This may be due to a faster rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis.


Improved endurance capacity following chocolate milk consumption compared with 2 commercially available sport drinks

Authors: Thomas, Kevin; Morris, Penelope; Stevenson, Emma

Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 34, Number 1, 1 February 2009 , pp. 78-82(5)


This study examined the effects of 3 recovery drinks on endurance performance following glycogen-depleting exercise. Nine trained male cyclists performed 3 experimental trials, in a randomized counter-balanced order, consisting of a glycogen-depleting trial, a 4-h recovery period, and a cycle to exhaustion at 70% power at maximal oxygen uptake. At 0 and 2 h into the recovery period, participants consumed chocolate milk (CM), a carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), or a fluid replacement drink (FR). Participants cycled 51% and 43% longer after ingesting CM (32 ± 11 min) than after ingesting CR (21 ± 8 min) or FR (23 ± 8 min). CM is an effective recovery aid after prolonged endurance exercise for subsequent exercise at low-moderate intensities.

Cette étude analyse les effets de 3 boissons de récupération sur la performance en endurance à la suite d'un exercice ayant épuisé les réserves de glycogène. Neuf cyclistes masculins entraînés participent à 3 séances expérimentales selon un ordre aléatoire contrebalancé et consistant en un exercice d'épuisement des réserves de glycogène suivi d'une récupération d'une durée de 4 h et d'une épreuve menée à 70 % de la Pmax jusqu'à épuisement sur une bicyclette. Au début de la période de récupération et deux heures plus tard, les sujets boivent du lait au chocolat (« CM ») ou une boisson de réhydratation sucrée (« CR ») ou une boisson de réhydratation (« FR »). Comparativement aux durées des efforts après avoir bu du CR (21 ± 8 min) et du FR (23 ± 8 min), les sujets améliorent de 51 % et de 43 % respectivement la durée de leur effort après avoir bu du CM (32 ± 11 min). Le lait au chocolat est une boisson améliorant la récupération consécutive à un exercice d'endurance et préalable à un effort d'intensité faible à modérée.


Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink
Susan M. Shirreffs*, Phillip Watson and Ronald J. Maughan
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
(Received 14 July 2006 – Revised 19 January 2007 – Accepted 24 January 2007)
The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration
was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1·8 (SD 0·1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment,
eleven subjects consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150% of their sweat loss. Urine samples were collected before and for 5 h after exercise
to assess fluid balance. Urine excretion over the recovery period did not change during the milk trials whereas there was a marked increase in
output between 1 and 2 h after drinking water and the sports drink. Cumulative urine output was less after the milk drinks were consumed
(611 (SD 207) and 550 (SD 141) ml for milk and milk with added sodium, respectively, compared to 1184 (SD 321) and 1205 (SD 142) ml for
the water and sports drink; P,0·001). Subjects remained in net positive fluid balance or euhydrated throughout the recovery period after drinking
the milk drinks but returned to net negative fluid balance 1 h after drinking the other drinks. The results of the present study suggest that milk can
be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink and can be considered for use after exercise by everyone except those individuals who have lactose


International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2006, 16, 78-91
© 2006 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Chocolate Milk as a Post-Exercise
Recovery Aid
Jason R. Karp, Jeanne D. Johnston, Sandra Tecklenburg,
Timothy D. Mickleborough, Alyce D. Fly, and Joel M. Stager
Nine male, endurance-trained cyclists performed an interval workout followed by
4 h of recovery, and a subsequent endurance trial to exhaustion at 70% VO2max,
on three separate days. Immediately following the fi rst exercise bout and 2 h of
recovery, subjects drank isovolumic amounts of chocolate milk, fl uid replacement
drink (FR), or carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), in a single-blind, randomized
design. Carbohydrate content was equivalent for chocolate milk and CR. Time to
exhaustion (TTE), average heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE),
and total work (WT) for the endurance exercise were compared between trials.
TTE and WT were signifi cantly greater for chocolate milk and FR trials compared
to CR trial. The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an effective
recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.


Title: Recovery of endurance running capacity: effect of carbohydrate-protein mixtures
Authors: Betts, James A.
Stevenson, Emma J.
Williams, Clyde
Sheppard, Catrin
Grey, Edwin
Griffin, Joe
Citation: Betts, J.A., Stevenson, E.J., Williams, C., Sheppard, C., Grey, E. and Griffin, J. (2005) 'Recovery of endurance running capacity: effect of carbohydrate-protein mixtures', International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15 (6), pp. 590-509.
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Journal : International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Issue date: Dec-2005
Abstract: Including protein in a carbohydrate solution may accelerate both the rate of glycogen storage and the restoration of exercise capacity following prolonged activity. Two studies were undertaken with nine active men in study A and seven in study B. All participants performed 2 trials, each involving a 90 min run at 70% VO2max followed by a 4 h recovery. During recovery, either a 9.3% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or the same solution plus 1.5% protein (CHO-PRO) was ingested every 30 min in volumes providing either 1.2 g CHO · kg-1 · h-1 (study A) or 0.8 g CHO · kg-1 · h-1 (study B). Exercise capacity was then assessed by run time to exhaustion at 85% VO2max. Ingestion of CHO-PRO elicited greater insulinemic responses than CHO (P less than or equal to 0.05) but with no differences in run times to exhaustion. Within the context of this experimental design, CHO and CHO-PRO restored running capacity with equal effect.
Type: Article
Language: en
Keywords: Glycogen-Metabolism
Amino acids

That is a sample of what has been researched on the topic and I will leave you to form your own ideas and would love some feedback on this topic if you have any.